Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS): End-Stage Renal Disease
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of chronic kidney disease, in which the kidneys are no longer able to function at a level that can sustain life. ESRD is also known as stage 5 chronic kidney disease, and it is typically characterized by a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2. ESRD often requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life. Symptoms of ESRD can include fatigue, weakness, and difficulty breathing, and swelling in the ankles, feet, and hands. Risk factors for ESRD include diabetes, high blood pressure, and a family history of kidney disease.
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